Provincial and Territorial Energy Profiles – Newfoundland and Labrador

Table of Contents
  • Figure 1: Hydrocarbon Production

    Figure 1: Hydrocarbon Production

    Source and Description:

    NEB (Crude oil, natural gas)

    This graph shows hydrocarbon production in Newfoundland and Labrador from 2006 to 2016. Over this period, crude oil production has decreased from 303.8 Mb/d to 210 Mb/d.

  • Figure 2: Electricity Generation by Fuel Type (2016)

    Figure 2: Electricity Generation by Fuel Type (2016)

    Source and Description:


    This pie chart shows electricity generation by source in Newfoundland and Labrador. A total of 41.8 TW.h of electricity was generated in 2016.

  • Figure 3: Electricity Capacity and Primary Fuel Sources Map

    Figure 3: Electricity Capacity and Primary Fuel Sources Map

    Source and Description:

    NEB, Natural Resources Canada

    This map shows electricity generation facilities in Newfoundland and Labrador. Facilities are shown by capacity and by primary fuel source.

    PDF version [1746 KB]

  • Figure 4: Crude Oil Infrastructure Map

    Figure 4: Crude Oil Infrastructure Map

    Source and Description:


    This map shows all refineries and offshore crude oil platforms in Newfoundland and Labrador, and crude oil infrastructure in Atlantic Canada.

    PDF version [454 KB]

  • Figure 5: End-Use Demand by Sector (2015)

    Figure 5: End-Use Demand by Sector (2015)

    Source and Description:


    This pie chart shows end-use energy demand in Newfoundland and Labrador by sector. Total end-use energy demand was 159 PJ in 2015. The largest sector was industrial at 44 % of total demand, followed by transportation (at 35 %), residential (at 16 %), and lastly, commercial (at 5 %).

  • Figure 6: End-Use Demand by Fuel (2015)

    Figure 6: End-Use Demand by Sector (2015)

    Source and Description:


    This figure shows end-use demand by fuel type in Newfoundland and Labrador in 2015. Refined petroleum products accounted for 87 PJ (55 %) of demand, followed by electricity at 32 PJ (20 %), natural gas at 27 PJ (17 %), biofuels at 8 PJ (5 %), and other at 5 PJ (3 %).

    Note: "Other" includes coal, coke, and coke oven gas.

  • Figure 7: GHG Emissions by Sector (2015)

    Figure 7: GHG Emissions by Sector (2015)

    Source and Description:

    Environment and Climate Change Canada – National Inventory Report

    This stacked column graph shows GHG emissions in Newfoundland and Labrador by sector every five years from 1990 to 2015 in MT of CO2e. Total GHG emissions have increased in Newfoundland and Labrador from 9.5 MT of CO2e in 1990 to 10.3 MT of CO2e in 2015.

Energy Production

Crude Oil

  • In 2016, Newfoundland and Labrador’s oil production was 209.7 thousand barrels per day (Mb/d), or 5.4% of Canada’s overall production (Figure 1). Production, which is all offshore, had steadily decreased between 2007 and 2015, but increased in 2016 because of higher production at the Hibernia oil platform.
  • Newfoundland and Labrador is the largest producer of crude oil in eastern Canada, and is the 3rd largest oil producing province in Canada after Alberta and Saskatchewan.
  • Some new oil discoveries have been made in the offshore of Newfoundland and Labrador in recent years by Statoil, which estimates that 300 million barrels of oil might be recoverable in the Flemish Pass Basin.
  • ExxonMobil’s Hebron oil platform is expecting first oil by late 2017.
  • In May 2017, Husky announced that it is moving forward with its West White Rose project. Construction of the gravity-based structure is expected to begin in late 2017 and production is expected in 2022.

Refined Petroleum Products (RPPs)

  • The North Atlantic Refinery in Come-by-Chance is the only refinery in Newfoundland and Labrador. It has a capacity of 115 Mb/d. The refinery consumes a mix of eastern Canadian production and offshore imports.
  • Newfoundland and Labrador has a net surplus of RPPs and exports a significant amount of its production to the United States (U.S.) East Coast market.

Natural Gas/Natural Gas Liquids (NGLs)

  • In 2016, 484 million cubic feet per day (MMcf/d) of natural gas was produced at offshore Newfoundland crude oil facilities. All natural gas was used for power at the offshore facilities, reinjected into the ground to maintain reservoir pressure, or flared.
  • Newfoundland and Labrador’s marketable natural gas resource is estimated by the Government of Newfoundland and Labrador at 12.6 trillion cubic feet.
  • There is no field production of NGLs in Newfoundland and Labrador.

Electricity and Renewables

  • In 2016, Newfoundland and Labrador generated 41.8 terawatt hours (TW.h) of electricity (Figure 2), which is approximately 6% of total Canadian generation. Newfoundland and Labrador is the 5th largest producer of electricity in Canada and has a generating capacity of 7 703 megawatts (MW).
  • Newfoundland and Labrador generates 95% of its electricity from hydro sources (Figure 3). This includes the 5 428 MW Upper Churchill Falls generating station, which is one of the largest power plants in Canada. Energy from Upper Churchill Falls is sold to Hydro-Québec under a long-term contract that expires in 2041.
  • The Lower Churchill Falls project consists of Muskrat Falls and Gull Island. Construction is now underway on the 824 MW Muskrat Falls generating station. Muskrat Falls is expected to be complete by mid-2020. The Gull Island project would consist of a 2 250 MW generation facility that would follow no earlier than three years after the completion of Muskrat Falls.
  • After hydroelectricity, oil is the largest contributor to Newfoundland and Labrador’s power generation, primarily from the 490 MW Holyrood Thermal Generating Station near Conception Bay South. Natural gas and wind power also contribute a small proportion to the generation mix.
  • Newfoundland and Labrador Hydro is a subsidiary of Nalcor Energy and is responsible for most generation and transmission. Newfoundland Power, a subsidiary of Fortis Inc., is the primary distributor of electricity. Independent power producers operate the area’s few wind farms.

Energy Transportation and Trade

Crude Oil and Liquids

  • There are no crude oil pipelines or crude-by-rail facilities in Newfoundland and Labrador. All of its offshore crude oil production is transported to refineries by ship.
  • Production from the Terra Nova and Hibernia oil fields is transported by shuttle tankers to the terminal near Arnold’s Cove, where it is then loaded onto ships destined for domestic and export markets. Production from the White Rose floating production facility is loaded directly onto tankers travelling to domestic and international destinations (Figure 4).

Natural Gas

  • There are no natural gas pipelines in Newfoundland and Labrador.

Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG)

  • There are no current or proposed LNG facilities in Newfoundland and Labrador


  • Newfoundland and Labrador is a significant net exporter of electricity. In 2016, net exports and interprovincial trade accounted for 29.0 TW.h, or about 69% of generation.
  • Newfoundland and Labrador’s transmission system has three networks. The two largest are the Island Interconnected System, which is isolated from the rest of North America, and the Labrador Interconnected System, which attaches to Quebec’s infrastructure. Construction of a Labrador-Island Link is underway to connect these two networks. A Maritime Link is also in progress to connect the island of Newfoundland with Nova Scotia and allow access to the North American bulk electric system.
  • The 3rd network consists of isolated systems serving 21 communities and approximately
    3 400 customers. These isolated systems are primarily supported by diesel generation, though some have access to wind-generated electricity.

Energy Consumption and Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions

Total Energy Consumption

  • End-use demand in Newfoundland and Labrador was 159 petajoules (PJ) in 2015. The largest sector for energy demand was industrial at 44% of total demand, followed by transportation at 35%, residential at 16%, and commercial at 5% (Figure 5). Newfoundland and Labrador’s total energy demand was the 9th largest in Canada, and the 5th largest on a per capita basis.
  • Refined petroleum products were the largest fuel type consumed in Newfoundland and Labrador, accounting for 87 PJ, or 55%. Electricity and natural gas accounted for 32 PJ (20%) and 27 PJ (17%), respectively (Figure 6).

Refined Petroleum Products

  • Gasoline in Newfoundland and Labrador is primarily refined within the province at the North Atlantic Refinery. A small amount is transferred from the Irving refinery in New Brunswick.
  • Total 2016 demand for RPPs in Newfoundland and Labrador was estimated at 48 Mb/d, or 2% of total Canadian RPP demand. Of Newfoundland and Labrador’s total demand, an estimated 19 Mb/d was for motor gasoline and an estimated 33 Mb/d was for diesel.
  • RPP prices have been regulated by the Board of Commissioners of Public Utilities since 2007. The Board sets maximum retail prices for heating oil, gasoline, and diesel using spot market pricing and adding wholesale and retail margins, transportation costs, and taxes. Prices are revised every two weeks or as required to adjust for market conditions.

Natural Gas

  • None of the natural gas produced at offshore oil facilities is sold. The natural gas is used to power the offshore facilities, reinjected into the ground to maintain reservoir pressure, or flared.


  • In 2015, annual electricity consumption per capita in Newfoundland and Labrador was 16.9 megawatt hours (MW.h). Newfoundland and Labrador ranked 4th in Canada for per capita electricity consumption and consumed 17% more than the national average.
  • Newfoundland and Labrador’s largest consuming sector for electricity in 2015 was residential at 4.4 TW.h. The industrial and commercial sectors consumed 3.3 TW.h and 1.3 TW.h, respectively. Newfoundland and Labrador’s electricity demand has decreased 5% since 2005.

GHG Emissions

  • Newfoundland and Labrador’s GHG emissions in 2015 were 10.3 megatonnes (MT) of carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2e). Newfoundland and Labrador’s emissions have increased 9% since 1990.Footnote 1
  • Newfoundland and Labrador’s emissions per capita are 19.5 tonnes CO2e per capita – 3% below the Canadian average of 20.1 tonnes per capita.
  • The largest emitting sectors in Newfoundland and Labrador are transportation at 36% of emissions, oil and gas production at 20%, and electricity generation at 13% (Figure 7).
  • Newfoundland and Labrador’s GHG emissions from the oil and gas sector in 2015 were 2.1 MT CO2e. Of this total, 1.6 MT were attributable to offshore oil production and 0.6 MT were attributable to petroleum refining.
  • In 2015, Newfoundland and Labrador’s power sector emitted 1.3 MT CO2e emissions, which represents about 2% of Canada’s GHG emissions from power generation.

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